Mushroom Types- Edible
In this post I listed type of edible mushrooms. In a simpler term I discuss about mushrooms types that are edible or eatable. Mushrooms have different or hundreds of species, growing below the ground (hypogeous) or growing above the ground ( epigeous), an edible fruiting bodies of various kinds of fungi, or called mushrooms, which could be harvested or picked by hands. Edible mushrooms have desirable tastes and nutritional cuisine, while the medicinal mushrooms are used as food and used for health purposes; while the toxic mushrooms are used sometimes for”religious purposes” these types of mushrooms can cause nausea, and discomfort. Some of these mushrooms can act as “psychoactive drug”. Mushrooms that alters the mind are not considered edible and are called ” hallucinogenic mushrooms”. Below is a list of mushroom types-edible.
1.) Enotaki or Enoki Mushrooms
Enokitake, Enoki, or Enokidake the term derives from Japanese language, these thin white mushrooms are famous among Asian cuisine in East Asia like Japan, Korea and China. These mushrooms are planted and created intentionally and being maintained through cultivation and a selection of Flammulina Velutipes also called “golden needle mushroom”. In China it is called ” jingu or jinzhengu”, “paengi beoseot” in Korean language, it is referred to as” kim cham and tram vang” in Vietnamese language. Ergothianeine is an antioxidants found in golden-needle mushrooms and also contains amount of proteins designated Five, that helps regulate human immune system.
2.) Shimeji or Hypsizgus mushrooms
Shimeji mushroom is an edible mushroom, commonly found in East Asia. The “Buna shimeji”, are commonly found in Europe, North America and Australia and sold fresh in markets. The shimeji, has a bitter taste when raw, which disappear when cooked properly.
3.) Shiitake Mushroom
Shiitake mushroom a famous edible mushroom cultivated in East Asia, used for Asian cuisines in countries like Japan, Vietnam, China, Korea and Thailand. It is commonly dried and exported to many countries in the world. Shiitake mushroom is considered a delicacy food and is also used as medicinal mushrooms in East Asia.
4.) Oyster Mushroom
The oyster mushroom, also known as abalone or tree mushroom, or “Pleurotus”, is an edible gilled mushroom, which are most famous used in Asian cuisine.
5.) King Oyster mushroom
The Pleurotus eryngii or commonly known as the King oyster mushroom, Ling trumpet or French horn mushroom, is an edible mushroom that can be found in Mediterranean regions of Europe, North Africa, Asia and also Middle East. It is called eringi in Japanese, cardoncello in Italian, Xing bao gu ( almond abalone mushroom), ci qin gu (stab celery mushroom), or ci qin er (stab celery side-ear mushroom) in Chinese language.
6.) Golden Oyster mushroom
Golden oyster mushroom or “tamogitake”. most popular edible mushroom in the wild, that grow on decaying woods.
7.) Truffle mushroom
Truffle edible mushroom, grows underground and are ectomycorrhizal, and so they are associated close with trees, and mostly in the genus tuber and expensive cuisine.
White Truffle mushroom
White truffle or Alba madonna (tuber magnatum) a popular edible mushroom found in Alba, Italy and can be found also in Croatia.
Black Truffle or Black Perigord truffle
The black truffle or black perigord truffle (Tuber magnatum) grows with oaks and a famous delicacy in Pengord region in France.
Terfezia or Timania truffle also called “desert truffle” of Middle East and Africa.
8.) Giant Puffball mushroom (Calvatia gigantea)
The giant puffball mushroom or Calvatea gigantea, is commonly found growing in the fields, meadows or shady areas in the woods. This mushroom usually grows in late summer or autumn. When cooked, the Puffball mushroom taste like “tofu” or melted cheese. There are similar to puffball mushrooms that are toxic for human consumptions, but they are more little and bit more round, compared to the giant puffballs mushroom.
9.) Beefsteak Polypore or Ox Tongue mushroom
Beefsteak polypore or Ox Tongue mushroom (Fistulina hepatica), the unusual specie of Agaricales, found commonly in Britain, North America, Australia, North Africa and other parts of Europe. It looks similarly with a slice of piece of meat, that is why it is used as alternative for meat found in French markets. It must be picked young and requires longer cooking, because of its acidic taste (sour). It grows on oaks, sweet chestnut trees from the month of August till end of Autumn. In Australia, it grows on Eucalyptus trees.
10.) Chicken Mushroom
Chicken of the woods, the chicken mushroom or chicken fungus, sulphur shelf or Laetiporus, an edible mushroom, said to taste like chicken meat. The name chicken of the wood, should not be confused with the edible polyphore maitake (Grifola Frondosa) or known as hen of the woods or with Lyophyllum decastes, also called fried chicken mushroom.
Bonus! Here are three additional mushroom types-edible.
11.) Jelly Ear mushroom
The Jelly-ear or Jew’s ear mushroom or various names of species of edible Auriculariales mushroom found in many countries around the world. These Auricularia auricula-judae contains hypoglycemic, anticoagulant, antitumor and lowering cholesterol properties, and so considered as medicinal mushrooms.
12.) Shaggy Ink Cap mushroom (Coprinus comatus)
The shaggy ink-cap, lawyer’s wig, shaggy mane or common name Coprinus comatus, commonly seen growing along rocky roads, lawns or waste areas. Should be harvested young and before gills turn black, it must be cooked and prepared immediately. Used for mushroom soups with parasol mushrooms. These species are very unique, because from white caps it turns black as soon as it was picked up. The shaggy-ink cap mushroom secretes a black liquid, this is the reason as to why they call it “ink-cap mushroom.”/p>
Parasol mushrooms or Macrolepiota procera, a basidiomycete fungus, commonly seen growing on well-drained soils, and can be found growing individually or sometimes in groups and “fairy rings” fields or out in the woods. Only the cap are considered edible. It hardly mistaken as the poisonous looked-alike “Chlorophyllum molybdities”. Parasol mushroom can be eaten raw, some people soak parasol mushroom in butter.
14) Red-capped Scaber Stalk mushroom (Leccinum aurantiacum)
Red-capped scaber stalk mushroom is the common name for Leccinum auranticum species of fungus found in the forests of North America, Asia and Europe. The cap is red-orange, white flesh, sometimes it becomes burgundy in color then turn to gray or purple-black when aged. These are one of the most favorite delicacy other than edible bolete, that turns very dark in color when cooked like any other Boletaceae, and popular with maggots. Some believed these species causes digestion problem if not cooked properly.
Caesars Mushroom (Amanita caesarea)
Amanita caesaria or commonly known as Caesar’s mushroom, is one of popular and expensive edible mushroom in Southern Europe and North Africa. The caps are orange in color, yellow gills and stem, and was valued by ancient Romans and called it Boletus.
15) Boletus Edulis or Penny bun mushroom
Boletus Edulis also called penny bun, porcino, or cep are basidiomycete fungus and species of genus Boletus.
The Boletus Areus, an edible mushroom and are considered expensive and regarded as special delicacy for gourmets.
Boletus Reticulatus also known summer cep, commonly seen growing in shady woods which is a favorite delicacy for special cuisines.
Boletus pinophilus or the common names Pine Bolete, or pinewood king bolete, can be found growing under pine trees, specially in summer and autumn that can be found in Europe.
16) Cantharellus cibarius or Chanterelle Mushrooms
Yellow foot chanterelle mushrooms or Cantharellus Lutescens are species related to C. Tubaeformis, because of its hymenium which are usually orange or white in color, while C. tubaeformis is gray, and can be found in wet places. These edible mushrooms are usually mixed because of similarity with the taste.
Cantharellus cibarius or the yellow Chanterelle mushroom is considered one of the best and easy to recognize mushrooms commonly found growing in Asia, Europe, North America and Australia. There are poisonous mushrooms that looked-alike with yellow chanterelle mushrooms, which the growers can easily distinguish the difference of edible and toxic mushrooms.
Yellow foot, winter mushrooms, funnel chanterelle or its scientific name Cantharellus Tubaeformis, are tube chanterelle family, known for its unique smokey and peppery taste when uncooked.
Black Chanterelle, Black trumpet, trumpet of death or horn of plenty or common name Cratellus Cornucopioides, is an edible musrooms, and also reffered to as the magnificent horn of goat (or goat of the nymph) that served with meat and drinks and became the “symbol of plenty”. Black chanterelle has dark colors and almost black in color and looks unpleasant to eat but has a very delicious flavor. Hunters or pickers of black chanterelle claims, it is really hard to find these mushroom species because of its dark color and grows on fallen leaves.
17) Gypsy Mushrooms (Continarius Caperatus)
Cortinarius Caperatus, much known as gypsy mushroom a high-steemed edible mushroom found in the region of Europe and North America. Rozities caperata was its former name, until some genetic studies confirmed it was a member of genus Cortinarius.
18) Bearded Tooth Mushrooms
Bearded tooth mushroom, Lion’s mane mushroom, pom pom mushroom (Hericium erinaceus), is an edible mushroom, also used as medicinal mushroom. It grows in the wild during summer and fall seen growing on hardwood. It should be picked and cook while young, because is is famous for its similarity with seafood and famous in most Chinese cuisines. It replaces pork or lamb meat that makes it expensive cuisine. It is called “monkey head mushroom (hou tou gu)in Chinese, “mountain hidden mushroom” (yamabushitake) in Japanese and in Vietnam it is called “nam dau khi”.
Hedgehog Fungus, hydnoid fungi, tooth fungi, sweet tooth fungus also called urchin of the woods or Hydinum Repandum mushroom.
19) Morchella or True Morel Mushroom
Morchella or Morel or true morel mushrooms, is an edible mushrooms, with its unique of honeycomb-like features. Considered by chefs as highly prized gourmet in French cuisine and delicious flavor and aroma.
Morel mushrooms contain hydrazine toxins, which can be removed by cooking and should not be eaten raw. According to some report, morels should not be eaten and followed by alcoholic drinks. If you are a first-timer eater of morels, it is advice to consume a small part for any allergy reactions.
20) Champignon mushroom or White mushroom (Agaricus bispuros)
Agaricus bispuros or famously known as Champignon mushrooms, table mushroom, white mushroom, button mushrooms, Roman brown mushroom, Italian mushrooms are the most common mushroom prepared and cooked by cooks in many part of the world as gourmet. Agaricus bispuros are also medicinal mushroom because it contains sodium, potassium and phosporus, conjugated linoleic acid and antioxidants.