Common Weird Skin Problems
There are common skin problem that may annoy us and just looking at these weird skin diseases it makes us uncomfortable or disturbing feeling. Our common reaction, buy some ointment or see our nearest dermatologist. Some people do self medication due to some skin disease are quite embarrassing and just wanted to keep it by themselves. What are these common weird skin diseases? Are they curable or do I need to see a skin doctor?
1) Pimples, Acne and Blackheads
A pimple, zit or spot is a type of acne and one of the excess oil of the skin results being trapped in the skin pores, some of pimple varieties is the Pustules and papules. Pimples can be treated by many kinds of acne medications prescribed by a doctors or dermatologist, or purchased at a drug store with various pimple/acne ointment and cream treatments. Inside the skin pore are sebaceous glands producing sebum. When the outer layers of skin continuously spread, the dead skin cells left behind may stick together by the sebum. This process causes the blockage in the pore, especially during the puberty stage, when the skin becomes thicker. Regular cleansing and washing skin areas with neutral cleansers, and practicing good hygiene, can reduce the amount of dead skin cells and other impurities on the outer skin, that can contribute to the development of pimples.Although practice of clean living and good hygiene however, is not a guaranty to prevent pimples. For pimples treatment purchased over-the counter medication are benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid and triclosan antibacterial agents.
Rosacea is a skin problems with persistent condition described as redness or facial erythema and sometimes infected pimples. Rosacea if left untreated it worsens the affected skin area, and this condition can affect all ages and types of skin and can affect the eyes known as ocular type. Treatment in the form of topical steroids (most commonly prescribed topical medications for the treatment of acne, rash, eczema and dermatitis, because of its anti-inflammatory properties, but they also have significant side effects) that can aggravate the condition. Rosacea skin problem affects primarily people from northwestern European descent affecting both males and females, but mostly common in women, and its peak of age are between 30’s and 60 years old. Usually, Rosacea begins as redness on the face across the cheeks, nose, or forehead, but can also less affect the neck, chest, ears, and scalp. Additional symptoms in some Rosacea cases, such as erythema or semi-permanent redness, dilation of superficial blood vessels on the face called telangiectasia, red small bumps or domed papules, and pustules, redness of the eyes, burning and stinging sensations, and in some extreme cases, if Rosacea is left untreated it may develop a large red lobulated or bulbous nose, ruddy nose, may develop called Rhinophyma caused by granulomatous infiltration. Some people mistakenly attributed alcoholism as a cause of Rosacea, but heavy drinkers of alcohol does aggravate the condition.Rosacea treatment consists of paring down the mass tissues with a sharp surgical blade or carbon dioxide laser and allowing the area to re-epithelialise or wound healing process. In some cases of Rosacea, the tissue is completely excised and the raw area skin-grafted.
Freckles are bunch of concentrated melanin which often visible on people with a fair complexion, and also called an ephelis. Freckles do not have an increased number of melanin producing melanocytes cells. This is in contrast to benign lesions lentigines or liver spots and moles. The freckles formation is triggered by exposure to sunlight, and the exposure to UV-B radiation activates melanocytes to increase producing melanin, which can cause freckles to become darker in color and more visible. Freckles are commony found predominantly on the face, although in some cases they may appear on any skin exposed to the sun, such as the shoulders. Freckles are rare on infants and but are found commonly on children before puberty. Ephelides characterize a freckle commonly people with light complexions, which is flat and light brown or red and fades with reduction of sun exposure, although they are found on people with different types of skin tones. Frequent user of sunblock can prevent the development of freckles.The liver spots also known as lentigines or sun spots are type of freckles that may not fade in the winter,but they can form after years of exposure to the sun. Liver spots are more common in older people. Liver spots which is common on older people, is also called Solar lentigo, Lentigo senilis, Old age spot, and Senile freckle are skin blemishes associated with aging and over exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.
A sunburn is a form of human skin radiation burn affecting living skin tissue, results from an overexposure to the sun‘s ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The normal symptoms in human’s skin and other animals consist of reddish skin that is hot and painful to the touch, general fatigue, and mild dizziness, and could be life threatening in severe cases from excess of UV radiation exposure. Suntan is the result from exposure of the skin to lesser amounts of UV radiation, however, excessive exposure to UV radiation is the leading cause non-malignant skin tmors. To prevent sunburn and some type of skin cancer, the Sunscreen is widely used. Malignant melanoma can be develop if the skin damage is not properly treated as a result of indirect DNA damage. The sunburn treatment is conservative, although some skin creams or lotions can help lessen with the symptoms.
Cellulitis is a localized or diffuse connective tissue inflammation with severe dermal inflammation and the skin subcutaneous layers. Cellulitis can be sometimes caused by normal skin flora or by exogenous bacteria, and occurs often where the skin has been infected previously, cuts or cracks in the skin, abrasions, blisters, burns, insect bites, surgical wounds, intravenous drug injections or intravenous catheter insertion areas. Commonly affected with cellulitis infections are the face’ skin or lower legs, though cellulitis can occur on any part of the body. The main therapy or treatment remains with proper and prescribed antibiotics, and recovery periods last from 48 hours to six months. While in Ludwig’s angina, a life threatening and an acute condition, where cellulitis can occur within the lower jaw or submandibular space. Cellulitis is unrelated to cellulite except for derivation of a word to cellulite, which is a skin problem of cosmetic condition featuring dimpling of the skin. A more superficial dermis infection and upper subcutaneous layer that presents clinically with a well-defined edge is called Erysipelas. Cellulitis and Erysipelas often coexist, so it is often difficult to differentiate between the two and commonly misdiagnosed. The cellulitis typical symptoms is an area which is reddish, hot, and painful. Cellulitis tendency conditions include insect or spider bite, blistering, animal bite, tattoos, itchy or pruritic skin rashes, recent surgical wounds, athlete’s foot, dry skin, eczema, injecting drugs (commonly from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection or an attempted intravenous injection but missed and blows the vein) pregnancy, diabetes and obesity, usually affecting the blood circulation, as well as burns and boils, although there is a debate that minor foot lesions can also contribute with the skin problem. Varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency are also risk factors for cellulitis infection diseases that affect blood circulation in the legs and feet. Cellulitis common treatment consists of resting the affected area, cutting away dead tissue, and application of either oral or intravenous antibiotics.
Cellulite also called adiposis edematosa, dermopanniculosis deformans, status protrusus cutis, gynoid lipodystrophy, and orange peel syndrome, is the mass effect of fatty layer under the skin within fibrous connective tissue manifesting topographically as dimpling of the skin and nodularity, often visible on the pelvic region, specifically the abdomen, lower limbs, and buttocks. Cellulite is more common in postpubescent or adult stage in women but very rare among men. The causes of cellulite hormones play a dominant role in the formation of cellulite and stressful lifestyle. Estrogen can be the most important hormone to initiate and aggravate cellulite. Although many women with cellulites are seeking for treatment, the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, L.A., clinical associate professor, Michael F. McGuire, confirmed that,” there is no cure for cellulite.”
Erysipelas also called in some countries as “Ignis sacer“, “holy fire“, and “St. Anthony’s fire, is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics (system that helps the immune system in removing and destroying waste, debris, dead blood cells, pathogens, toxins, and cancer cells). Patients affected by Erysipelas, suffers symptoms within 48 hours of its initial infections developing high fevers, shaking or chilling, fatigue, headaches, vomiting and general illness. The erythematous skin lesion rapidly enlarged and has a sharply demarcated raised edge, appears red bunp, swollen, warm, hardened and painful rash, similar in consistency to an orange peel. Severe erysipelas infections can result in vesicles *small fluid-filled blister), bullae (large blisters on the skin that are filled with clear fluid), and petechiae (bleeding into the skin), with possible skin necrosis (death of body tissue), swollen Lymph nodes and may occur lymphedema (accumulation of lymph in soft tissue with accompanying swelling). Sometimes, a red mark extending to the lymph node is visible. The erysipelas skin disease is common among the elderly, infants, and children. Patients affected by erysipelas with immune deficiency, diabetes, skin ulceration, fungal infection, alcoholism, impaired lymphatic drainage (for example, after breast removal surgery or mastectomy, pelvic surgery, bypass grafting) are also at risk.Treatment involves either oral or intravenous antibiotics, using penicillins, clindamycin or erythromycin depending on how severe is the infections. While the symptoms can be resolve in a day or two, the skin may take weeks to return to normal.
7) Ludwig’s angina,
Ludwig’s angina, otherwise known as angina ludovici, is a serious, life-threatening cellulitis or connective tissue infection, of the mouth’s floor, commonly occurring in adults with existing dental infections and if left untreated, may obstruct the airways and develop difficulty in breathing and will be needing a tracheotomy (surgical procedure that opens up the windpipe (trachea). Other names for angina include angina Maligna and Morbus Strangularis. Ludwig’s angina is commonly associated with dental infections account for approximately eighty percent of cases. Ludwig’s angina symptoms refers to the strangling feeling, not the feeling of chest pain, though there may be chest pain in Ludwig’s angina if the infection spreads into the retrosternal (pain behind the sternum or the breastbone) space. In most cases, the route of infection is from infected lower molars or from pericoronitis (soft tissue inflammation surrounding the crown of a partially erupted tooth), which is a gum infection surrounding the usually the lower third molars which is partially erupted. Some report, associate tongue piercing was thought to be caused by Ludwig’s angina infection. Treatment involves correct prescribed antibiotic medications, monitoring and protection of the airway in most severe cases of Ludwig’s angina, and where effective, urgent maxillo-facial surgery and dental consultation to undergo incision and drainage procedure to incise and drain the pus collections of the abscess, may be either intraoral or external. Ludwig’s angina is a life threatening condition, and reported fatality rate of about 5%.
8) Athlete’s foot
Athlete’s foot also known as ringworm of the foot, and tinea pedis is a skin fungal infection that causes scaling, flaking, and itchiness of affected areas, and in severe cases, swelling and amputation of the foot.Athlete’s foot is caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton, and this disease is usually transmitted in moist communal areas where people walk barefoot, such as showers or bathhouses, and requires a warm moist environment, such as the inner of a shoe, in order to incubate. This fungus only affects people who frequently walk barefooted. Although the athlete’s foot commonly affects the feet, it can spread and infect other areas of the body, such as the groin, particularly areas of skin that are kept hot and moist, such as with insulation, body heat, and sweat, such as wearing a shoe, for long periods of time. The fungus is usually contaminated through walking barefoot in an infected area or using an infected towel, infection can be prevented by remaining barefoot as this allows the feet to dry properly and will not allow the fungus to incubate, from the warm moist interior of a shoe. Athlete’s foot can be treated by a very limited number of pharmaceuticals creams, ointments and other treatments, although it can be almost completely prevented by not wearing shoes, or may wear them in just a short period of time. Athlete’s Foot can also be transmitted by sharing footwear with an infected person, for instance in some sports venue where one could rent a pair of shoe such as at a bowling alley or any other place. Zinc oxide-based diaper rash ointment may be used, talcum powder can be used to absorb moisture to kill off the infection and keep the feet dry.
9) Xeroderma or Dry Skin
Xeroderma or xerodermia, derived from the Greek words for dry skin, is a common skin problem, which involves the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with moisturizers and emollients. Xeroderma occurs commonly on the scalp, lower legs and arms, the knuckles, the sides of the abdomen and thighs. Xeroderma symptoms are scaling (the visible peeling of the outer skin layer), itching and skin cracking. Occuring more often during winter where the cold air outside the house and the hot air inside creates a low relative humidity. This causes the skin to lose moisture of the skin and becomes dry and it may crack and peel. Frequent bathing or hand washing using harsh soaps, may also contribute to xeroderma. This skin problem can also cause by vitamin A, vitamin D deficiency, systemic illness, severe sunburn or some improper medication treatments. Xeroderma or dry skin is also a result from excessive use of choline inhibitors, detergents such as washing powder and dish washing liquids and other chemical cleansers. Repeated emollients application over a few days treatment, or skin lotions or moisturizer creams to the affected area will likely result in quick alleviation of xeroderma.
Eczema often referred to as atopic dermatitis, is a form of persistent skin inflammation and is widely applied to persistent skin problems. These include recurring rashes of the skin and dryness that are characterized by various symptoms usually with skin redness, skin edema or swelling, itching and dryness, crusting, flaking, blistering, cracking, oozing, or bleeding. Temporary skin discoloration in infected areas of the skin, may appear and are sometimes due to healed injuries. Scratching extremely to the infected areas, can open a healing lesion may result in scarring and may enlarge or spread the rash. Treatment with Corticosteroids are highly effective in controlling or suppressing symptoms in most cases, but for minor and mild eczema a weak steroid may be used for example hydrocortisone.
11) Seborrhoeic dermatitis
Seborrhoeic dermatitis also called seborrheic dermatitis AmE, seborrhea also called seborrheic eczema is an inflammatory skin disease affecting the scalp, face, and body or torso. The seborrheic dermatitis presents with scaly, flaky, itchy, and red skin, affecting commonly the sebaceous gland’s skin rich areas. Seborrhoeic dermatitis usually presents as scalp scaling similar to dandruff among the adolescents and adults, or as mild to marked erythema (redness) of the nasolabial fold. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is caused by a pathologic over production of sebum known as seborrhea, and subsequent infection and inflammation. Seborrhoeic dermatitis’ symptoms appear gradually and usually the first signs are flaky skin and scalp with symptoms occuring most commonly in any parts of the skin of face, behind the ears and in areas where the skin folds. Flakes sometimes may be yellow, white or grayish in color. Redness and flaking may also occur on the skin near the eyelashes, forehead, sides of the nose, upper back and the chest areas. In more severe cases, yellowish to reddish scaly pimples appear along the hairline, in severe cases of seborrhoeic dermatitis behind the ears, or in the ear canal, on the eyebrows, on the nose bridge, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back. Dermatologists recommend topical treatments such as shampoos, cleansers or creams and lotions containing antifungal, anti-inflammatory, sebo-suppressive or keratolytic ingredients.
Dandruff is the spreading of the scalp’s dead skin cells, and should not be confused with a simple dry scalp. Dandruff is a common problem of scalp disorder affecting almost male and female from puberty to adulthood of any ethnicity. Itching scalp is the most common symptoms of dandruff, and has been established that keratinocytes, is an important role during dandruff development, in the expression and generation of immunological reactions. Severe dandruff may fluctuate with season as it often worsens during winter or cold season. Most cases of dandruff can be easily treated with specialized shampoos, however, there is no confirmed cure. Most people affected by dandruff develops social or self-esteem problems, and sometimes treatment for both psychological and physiological reasons is needed. The epidermal layer continuous to replace itself, the scalp cells are pushed outward where they eventually die and flake off, and sometimes these flakes of skin are too small to be visible. However, in some cases of dandruff conditions cause skin cell turnover to be unusually rapid, especially in the scalp. Dandruff metabolic by-products of skin micro-organisms specifically Malassezia yeasts, ((formerly known as genus fungi Pityrosporum).
12) Head Louse or Pediculosis capitis
Pediculosis capitis (also known as head lice infestation, nits or louse egg and cooties, is a medical condition that caused by the colonization of the parasitic insect known Pediculus humanus capitis of the human hair and skin or commonly called the head louse. Only the head or scalp of the host is infested with head lice, because they commonly feed on human blood (hematology) and itching from lice bites is a common symptom of Pediculus capitis condition. Treatment Typically treatment includes topical insecticides application such as a pyrethrin or permethrin, although various common treatment of herbal remedies are also used. Pediculus is the most common term for Lice infestation and occurs in many mammalian and bird species. Humans are hosts for two other lice known as the body louse and the crab louse. Head-lice infestation is widely endemic, commonly affected are the children. Unlike the body lice, the head lice are not carriers of any infectious skin diseases. Head lice are commonly spread through an infested head lice of a person direct head-to-head contact into another person, transmission by sharing bedding or clothing, towels, and headwear which is much less common. Some people thought lice can fly and dwell to a person’s hair, but Lice do not have wings and cannot jump. Each nit or egg may hatch one nymph and develop to an adult louse.
13) Pseudofolliculitis barbae
A medical term for persistent skin irritation caused by shaving is known as Pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB) also known as barber’s itch, folliculitis barbae traumatica, razor bumps, scarring pseudofolliculitis of the beard, and shave bumps, most common on the male who shave often their face, but it can occur on other parts of the body where hair is shaved or plucked, or areas such as the genital shaving (or pseudofolliculitis pubis (PFP)), where hair is curly and the skin is sensitive. After shaving the bearsd or genital pubic hairs, it begins to grow again, and the curly hair tends to curl more into the skin instead of straight out the follicle, and lead to an inflammation reaction of the infected skin. The infected PFB make the skin look red and itchy, and in some severe cases it looks and develop into a similar infected pimples. These inflammation of the papules or pustules, can develop if the area becomes infected. After shaving, usually the existing razor bumps are visible and can be treated by removal of the ingrown hair. The extrafollicular hairs can be pulled gently from under the skin, using tweezers, although complete removal of the hair from its follicle is not recommended. But in severe cases or transfollicular hairs may require removal by a dermatologist.
Tinea barbæ is otherwise known as Barber’s itch, Ringworm of the beard, and Tinea sycosis is a fungal hair infection. Tinea barbae is caused by dermatophytic infection around the men’s bearded skin area. Generally, The Tinea barbae infection occurs as a follicular inflammation, or as a lesion of cutaneous granulomatous, for example, a persistent inflammatory reaction, and one of the known causes of Folliculitis. The Barber’s itch is most common among agricultural workers, or commonly known as farmers, due to the transmission is more common from animal-to-human, more than human-to-human transmission.
14) Jock Itch
Tinea cruris, also known as crotch itch, crotch rot, Dhobie itch, eczema marginatum, gym itch, jock itch, jock rot, and ringworm of the groin, is a dermatophyte fungal infection of the groin area in male or female, though more often seen in males. This condition is called Tinea inguinalis in the German Sprachraum derived from Latin word inguen which means groin, whereas Tinea cruris is used for the lower leg’s dermatophytosis derived from Latin word crus.Tinea Cruris may be similar but different from Candidal intertrigo, which is an skin infection caused by Candida albicans, located specifically between intertriginous folds of adjacent skin, which can be found in the groin or scrotum, and the fungal infection is indistingguishable caused by Tinia. Candidal infections however, tend to both appear and disappear with treatment quickly. It is also worth knowing that tinea cruris do not infect the scrotum. The Tinea crusis as the common name for this condition implies, it causes itching or a burning sensation in the groin area, thigh skin folds, or anus, inner thighs may be involve and genital areas, as well as extending back to the perineum and and areas of perianal. Affected areas may appear with flaking, rippling, peeling or cracking skin with sometimes red, tan, or brown, color. The fungus from Athelete’s foot infection, can spread to the groin through tight clothing such as Jockstraps, traps heat and moisture, providing an ideal environment for the fungus. The fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most common cause of Athlete’s foot, ringworm and jock itch. Keeping the groin area clean and dry according to medical professionals, by drying off thoroughly the groin area, after bathing and putting on dry clothing immediately after swimming or perspiring, not sharing clothing or towels with others, after athletic activities showering immediately is appropriate, wearing loose cotton underwear, avoiding tight-fitting clothes, and using antifungal powders.
Dermatophytosis or ringworm is a skin’s fungal infection in medical term, in humans, pets such as cats, and domesticated animals such as sheep and cattle. The ringworm term is an inappropriate, since the condition is caused by different species of fungi, and not by parasitic worms. The fungi that cause dermatophytes or parasitic infection that feed on keratin, the material found in the outer layer of skin, hair, and nails. These fungi commonly grow or develop on skin that is warm and moist, but may also survive directly outside or interior of hair shafts. The fungus in pet’s skin, is responsible for the disease that survives in skin and on the outer surface of hairs. Misdiagnosis and treatment of ringworm with a topical steroid, a standard treatment of the similar pityriasis rosea, can result in tinea incognito, a condition where ringworm fungus can grow without typical features like a distinctive raised border. The survives in moist, warm areas, such as locker rooms, tanning beds, swimming pools and in skin folds. This skin infection can be spread by sharing sport goods, towels, and clothing. The treatment for anitfungal include topical agents such as miconazole, terbinafine, clotrimazole, ketoconazole or tolnafate applied twice daily until symptoms resolve. commonly within one or two weeks healing process.
16) Angiokeratoma of Fordyce
Angiokeratoma of Fordyce also known as Angiokeratoma of the scrotum and vulva, although one should not to be confused with Fordyce’s spot, is a skin condition characterized by red to blue papules on the scrotum or vulva.
Fordyce’s spots is sometimes confused with Angiokeratoma of Fordyce also known as Angiokeratoma of the scrotum and vulva, are small bumps, painless, raised, pale, sometimes red or white spots, that may appear on the scrotum, shaft of the penis or labia, as well as the retromolar mucosa inner surface and vermilion border of the lips of an individual’s face. The Fordyce’s spots are common in men and women of all ages, however, this skin problem are not known to be associated with any disease or illness and are of cosmetic concern only. But Men with this skin condition sometimes consult with a dermatologist because of fear that they may have a sexually transmitted disease (STD) especially genital warts or may be some form of cancer. Sometimes, the Fordyce granules can also sometimes be found in the mouth. Despite the fact, that most doctors consider this a normal physiological phenomenon and advise against undergoing treatment, and treatments such as Vaporising laser treatments such as CO2 laser or electro desiccation have been used with some success in diminishing the appearance of this condition if they are of cosmetic concern.
A milium (plural milia), also known as milk spot or an oil seed, is a keratin-filled cyst that can be seen just under the epidermis or on the roof of the mouth. Milia can appear on people of all ages, but are commonly seen with newborn babies. The milia are commonly found around the nose and eyes, and sometimes on the genitalia, which is often mistaken by those affected as warts or other STDs. Milia is sometimes mistaken and be confused as whiteheads. Milia among children often disappear within two to four weeks, while in adults they may be required to be removed by a doctor or dermatologist or an esthetician or cosmetologist.
A small, rough growth similar to a cauliflower or a solid blister known as wart, which commonly occurs in an individual’s hands, feet or even genital areas, but often in other body parts. Warts are caused by a viral infection, specifically by one of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV). However, although there many varieties of warts, the most common warts are considered harmless. Warts can be contagious and can be transmitted from other person, usually by skin to skin contact that enter the body in an area of broken skin. The warts typically disappear after a few months but when it recur, it can last for years. A report and review of wart treatments with clinical trials of various cutaneous wart treatments concluded that topical treatments which contains salicylic acid were more effective than placebo. An effective treatment as salicylic acid and have been used for trials is the Cryotherapy, although one complicating factor in the wart removal treatment is the recurring of the wart after it was removed or treated. Many of the more common HPV and wart types are; Common warts, cancers and genital dysplasia, Plantar warts, Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata or venereal warts), Flat warts, Butcher’s wart most common among butchers and other meat-handling professions, Heck’s disease (also known as focal epithelial hyperplasia) white to pinkish papules that grow diffusely in the oral cavity. Mosaic wart, a group of tightly clustered plantar-type warts, and Filiform or digitate wart, a thread- or finger-like wart, most common on the face, especially near the eyelids and lips.
Xanthelasma or xanthelasma palpebrarum is a boundary of yellowish fat or cholesterol deposit underneath the skin, usually on or around the eyelids. These minor growths of xanthelasma are either harmful or painful that may be disfiguring and can be removed. The xanthelasma are common in Asian people and those from the Mediterranean region. They may or may not indicate high blood levels of cholesterol because of hereditary components, if there is no family history of xanthelasmata, they usually indicate high cholesterol and may correlate with a risk of atheromatous (atheroma is an accumulation and swelling in artery walls made up almost of debris or macrophage cells and containing lipids (cholesterol and fatty acids) disease. A xanthelasma may be referred to as a xanthoma when becoming larger and nodular, tumor-like proportions, however, xanthelasma is often classified simply as a subtype of xanthoma.
A xanthoma (plural. xanthomas or xanthomata) or skin condition called xanthomatosis, is a deposit of yellowish rich material in tendons known cholesterol, or other body parts in various disease states. The xanthoma are cutaneous manifestations of lipidosis in which there is an accumulation of lipids in large foam cells within the skin, and commonly associated with both primary and secondary types of hyperlipidemias. Tendon xanthomas are associated with Type II hyperlipidemia, chronic biliary tract obstruction, (term for the path by which bile is secreted by the liver then transported to the first part of the duodenum or small intestine), and primary biliary cirrhosis (an autoimmune liver disease). The Palmar xanthomata and tuboeruptive xanthomata (over knees and elbows) occur in Type III hyperlipidaemia.
19) Body odor
Body odor, or B.O., is an unpleasant odor of our bodies that can give off when bacteria activity that live on the skin break down, and the the formation of body odors in human, is mainly caused by skin glands excretions. Between the different types of the human skin glands, the body odor is primarily the result of the apocrine sweat glands, which secrete the majority of chemical compounds needed for the skin flora (referred to as the skin microbiome or skin microbiota, are the microorganisms living on the skin) to metabolize it into distinctive smell or odorous substances.This happens mostly in the axillary region or armpit, although the gland can also be found in the areola (small circular area on the body with different colors surrounding tissue, describing the pigmented area on the human breast around the nipple (areola mammae) but it can also be used to describe other small circular areas such as the inflamed region surrounding a pimple), anogenital region, and around the navel (clinically known as the umbilicus, commonly known as the belly button, umbilical dip or tummy button)). The genital and armpit areas also contain springy hairs or pubic hairs which help diffuse body odors. Some factors which may cause body odor can come from spicy food, spices, drink, and diseases, also influenced by sex, lifestyles, genetics and medications. The body odor condition can be known medically as bromhidrosis, apocrine bromhidrosis, osmidrosis, ozochrotia, fetid sweat, body smell or malodorous sweating. Osmidrosis or bromhidrosis is defined by a foul odor due to abnormal and excessive perspiration or hyperhidrosis, a water-rich environment that supports bacteria. The body odor may be reduced or prevented or even aggravated by using deodorants, antiperspirants,disinfectants, underarm liners, triclosan, special soaps or foams with ribworth antiseptic plant extracts and liquorice, chlorophyllin ointments and sprays topically, and chlorophyllin supplements internally. The body odor is commonly associated with hygiene practices, its presentation can be affected by diet changes as well as the other factors.
Halitosis, commonly called bad breath, is a symptom where a noticeably unpleasant or foul odor is present on the exhaled breath. People are most concern about halitosis and frequent reason for people to seek dental care, following tooth decay or dental caries and gum disease or periodontal disease, is accounted for various conditions, including nose, sinuses, throat, lungs, esophagus, stomach disorders or internal organs diseases. Very rarely, Halitosis or bad breath, can be one cause of many symptoms of a medical condition, of liver failure, although this is rare, but in the cases of vast majority, the cause is minor and can often be reduced to oral hygiene, such as frequent brushing of teeth with proper toothpaste and mouthwash, brushing or gently scraping the back of the tongue using tongue cleaner, tongue brush or scraper, or toothbrush will do, and improving the health of the gums, by using dental floss. Halitosis can be more difficult to diagnose, if the origin of bad breath is not from the mouth. People with Halitosis is a social taboo, and as a result sometimes they suffer psychological or social problems that can develop, such as social anxiety and depression.
The complete or partial loss of hair or lack growth of hair is known as Baldness, and it is also called hair thinning. The baldness pattern and degree varies in many types, but androgenic alopecia is the most common, alopecia androgenetica, or alopecia seborrheica, with the last term used in Europe primarily. Baldness pattern is distinct from alopecia areata, which usually involves patchy hair loss in some area of the scalp. In case of alopecia totalis, it is the extreme and severe forms of baldness, which involves the total hair loss of the head, and the most extreme form, alopecia universalis, which involves the total loss of hair from the head and the body. Alopecia which means fox, means hair loss from the head or body and also means baldness. Some cause of inducing hair loss, baldness or alopecia includes hair relaxer solutions, hot hair irons, drugs or medications, chemotherapy results, or in some cases due to underlying medical conditions, such as iron deficiency. Alopecia areata typically presents with bald spots with sudden hair loss causing patches to appear on the scalp or other areas of the body, and if left untreated, the condition may become severe, due to some cases of alopecia, it does not respond to treatment, complete baldness can result in the affected area, which will lead to alopecia totalis. And led to severe case if the total hair loss of the body and head known as alopecia universalis, similar to the effects after treatment with chemotherapy. Telogen effluvium is a scalp disorder referring to thinning or shedding of hair resulting from the early entry of hair in the telogen phase, (the resting phase of the hair follicle), also cause severe loss of hair from severe stress, traumas from childbirth, surgery and poisoning. Several medications with those patients with diabetes, high blood pressure or hypertensions, heart disease and cholesterol can cause temporary or permanent hair loss or baldness.
Most people especially in females, having frequently tie their hair such as ponytails, braid or cornrows (also known as rows, braids, or canerows, style of hair grooming where the hair is braided tightly and close to the scalp) who pull on their hair with excessive force, and also frequent use of helmet, head gears and hats, can cause traction alopecia.
The total loss of hair in the head is known as Alopecia totalis, and its causes are still unclear, but some believed to be autoimmune. Most common belief that stress is thought to be a contributor in alopecia areata. But some people with the alopecia disorder lead relatively low stress lives. There are proposals for treatment for Alopecia totalis known as Methotrexate and corticosteroids.
A condition of hair lost from a small area of the body, commonly the scalp area, is known as Alopecia areata (AA). These case of hair lost in most first stage cases that causes bald spots on the scalp, also called spot baldness. A medical condition causing rapid loss of hair in human body parts including hair, eyebrows and eyelashes, is known as Alopecia totalis and Alopecia universalis are rare. This two types of alopecia is the most severe form of alopecia areata. There is no standard treatment for alopecia universalis.
Ingrown Nail or Onychocryptosis
ingrown toenail also known as an Onychocryptosis or unguis incarnatus, is a common type of nail disease, often painful and pus forming in growing nail that cut in one or both sides of the nail bed or paronychium. Most ingrown nails occur in person shoe-wearing cultures and commonly do not occur in people who habitually walk barefooted. Person who frequently wear shoe, toe nails are commonly pressured downward by a shoe, the nail enters inside the nail bed or paronychium, growing inward, but in some cases an ingrown toenail may be overgrown toe skin. Ingrown nails sometimes can occur in both the nails of the hand and feet, but most common with the toenails. An ingrown toenail, or onychocryptosis, is due to the actual penetration of a nail silver into the flesh. In severe cases, the treatment is the initial surgical procedure commonly called wedge resection, a partial tearing away of the lateral nail plate or a complete removal of the toenail. Surgical treatment is required for severe ingrown nails, if conservative treatment of a minor ingrown toenail does not succeed.