Horrible Natural Disasters and Meteorological Phenomena
Meteorological phenomena is a weather disturbance, described by the principle of meteorology for people to understand the sudden calamity or horrible events that could lead to distress, misery, misfortune, destructive to properties marked with the great loss. The natural disaster, is described as a natural hazard not a man-made-calamity, but a nature calamity such as floods, tornado, hurricane or tropical cyclone, volcano eruption, earthquakes, heatwave, landslide or avalanche, snowstorm, sandstorm and many more, and named in various category and regions.
1) Tropical Cyclone or Hurricane
Typhoon is a storm or tropical cyclone in the western Pacific. The tropical cyclone is a storm described as a low-pressure area and thunderstorms that produces heavy rain and gusty winds; while the low-pressure area is the region or area where the atmospheric pressure is lower at sea level than the area’s surrounding. Moonsoon is the seasonal prevailing wind that blow predominantly in one direction throughout the year. Moonsoon name originates from Portuguese word “moncao“, from Arabic word “mawsim” which means “season” or mausam meaning, weather in Hindi, Urdu and North Indian language and in Dutch, monsun.
2) Flood / Flash floods
Flood in the overflowing of an expanse of water that submerges the land and covering of water of land, resulting to overflowing of water level coming from volume of overflowing water from rivers and lakes to its usual boundaries. Overflowing of waters from rivers and lakes that causes flooding, is a result from heavy rains or storm. Flash floods, is the sudden flood caused by sudden release of volume of water levels from dams, landslides (heavy rains from the mountain) or glacier.
3) Landslide and Mudslide
The rapid sliding downward of a mass of dry earth and rocks, commonly from mountains caused by ground movement, earthquakes or heavy rains is called landslide.
Mudslide is a rapid movement of a large mud mass formed from flood and soil, caused by heavy rainfall, snowmelt or high level of water that can trigger a ground movement. Mudslide is also called mudflow, mudstream, lahar and pyroclastic flow from volcanic eruption, jokulhlaup and debris flow (especially from high mountains).
4) Lightning and Thunderstorms
Lightning is the abrupt electrostatic natural electrical discharges accompanied by violent thunder sound, which occurs during thunderstorms, volcano eruption and form ash clouds, forest fires or wildfires or sand storms. Lightning can trigger and start the forest fires. The Cumulonimbus cloud is always involved in thunderstorms and inclement of other weather condition. There many types of lightning; the cloud-to-ground, is the most common type of lightning discharged between a thunderclouds and the ground and can be threat to life and property when the lightning hit the ground. The bead lightning, is the cloud-to-ground spark, which is short and the bright sectionlast longer than the usual lightning discharge, and soon lightning cools and fade, the large section cool more slow and become visible longer and appear in string of beads form. The Ribbon lightning occurring during thunderstorms, with multiple returning lightning strokes and high cross winds, blowing each successive return stroke slightly to one area where the wind blow previously and form into ribbon effect.The Staccato lightning is the cloud-to-ground lightning which the lightning strike have short duration, and appears in single, bright flash, commonly found in the visual vault section near the mesocyclone and intensify the thunderstorms. Forked lightning, the ground-to-cloud lightning also called positive lightning, cloud-to-cloud lightning or intra-cloud-lightning often called heat lightning, sheet lightning, dry lightning and the ball lightning are also known as destructive lightnings. Dry lightning is the most common lightning that caused wildfires and volcano eruptions due to high temperatures.
5) Volcano Eruptions
The opening and rapture of a volcano allowing hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from volcanic floor surface. Volcanic vent of fissure (where lava erupts) expelled the tephra (volcanic ash), lapili (little stones), volcanic bombs (mass of molten rocks), and blocks (fragment of rocks). There are various types of volcanic eruptions, which some names are derived from the volcano which eruption was described by the movement and behavior, observed as the, magmatic eruption (produce ejecta or clastic rocks during explosion or volcanic vent), Hawaiian eruptions (named after Hawaiian volcanoes, the weak and calmest volcano eruption) just like the submarine eruption, the volcanic eruption where lava expel under the sea or ocean. Then the Phreatic eruption type, the super heating of steam and magma; strombolian eruption, (low level eruptions named after Stromboli volcano in Italy, Vulcanian eruption and Surtseyan eruption (named after southern coast of Iceland, the Surtsey Islands).
Lava is the rock formed by the cooling and solidifying molten rocks that reaches the earth’s surface through volcanic eruption or fissure.
Lahar and Pyroclastic Volcanic material
Lahar is a kind of mudflow or debris composed of pyroclastic materials flowing downhill from the volcano and materials composed of rocky debris, water, hot ashes with various densities such as lapili, pumice, and lava bombs and Sulphur substances. Lahar usually flows on the river channels.
Ash Falls or Volcanic Ashes
The volcanic ash or ash falls, consists of small stone particles or known as tephra, which are bits of powdered rocks and glass substances, produced by volcanic eruption which also come from the Pyroclastic materials. The volcanic ash or ash fall, contains Fluoride substances, with high contents concentrated Fluoride salt which is toxic to the skin and eyes.
Tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column , dark-funnel shaped clouds, which develops below a heavy cumulonimbus cloud or in some cases, the cumulus clouds. Oftentimes the tornado is called cyclone or twister, in most cases tornado are destructive to human and properties, and named them “killer tornado”.
Earthquake also known as tremor, quake or temblor, resulting from sudden movement or earth’s vibration or trembling of the earth, a violent movement of the rocks creating seismic waves and tremors. Powerful earthquakes can trigger big tidal waves to tsunami.
9) Tsunami and Tidal Waves
Tsunami or the “harbor waves”, or series of disastrous events of ocean waves, generated by submarine eruption or underwater volcanic eruption, earthquakes, landslides beneath the ocean.
Tidal wave is a giant water wave or a tidal bore, which is a large movement of water formed by the funnel-like of the approaching tide into a narrow bay or river. Tidal wave can also be triggered by sudden earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The tidal waves is still considered “normal wave”, but only much bigger in size than the ordinary water waves. Most surfers love tidal waves.
Tidal bore or bore, also called aegir, eagre or eygre, is a tidal phenomenon, which the approaching tide forming into big waves or rapid rise of water in the river, and rise feet high of tidal waves.
The offshore rise of water due to low pressure weather system, typically a tropical storm or typhoon is called the storm surge. The rise of tidal waves above the normal water level on the open sea are caused by strong winds brought by tropical weathers condition.
10) Wind, Downburst
Microburst is the high wind which is abrupt, sudden and intense, that can knock down trees that could last in a couple of seconds or several minutes. An area of cold air, after reaching the earth level, and spread in any directions, and produced strong gusty winds, is known as the downburst.
Drought is a severe period of dry season, months or even longer period of water supply crisis which is hazardous for the agriculture and livestock.
12) Haboob, Dust Storm or Sand Storm
Haboob is an intense type of dust storm and commonly observed in countries with insufficient water or rainfall, consisting of violent winds and often called sandstorms. Haboob is a common weather phenomena in Phoenix, Arizona US, Saudi Arabia, North Africa and India.
Sand Storm / Dust Storm
A strong whirlwind, ranging from small to tall heights of whirlwind, and commonly of short duration that swirls debris, sand and dusts, and commonly called devil dust.
13) Fire / Wildfire or Forest Fire
Wildfires, forest fire, bush fire, peat fire or vegetation fire is uncontrolled fire of forests, occurring in countryside or wilderness areas. Most common cause of wildfires are lightning, volcanic eruption, rockfall’s spark and and improper combustion occurring without an external source of ignition. Wildfires can cause extensive damages to people and their properties; but in some plant species, they depend on the effects of fire growth and reproduction. But in most cases, the extent of wildfires can have ecological negative effects.
Hail is the form of solid classes of hydrometeors, which is atmospheric water phenomena, and product of condensation of the water vapor n the atmosphere region and falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation are the rain (liquid precipitation), drizzle (light small drops or rain precipitation), sleet (mixed of snow and rain precipitation, snow partially melt down as it falls and occurring commonly in the UK, Canada and Ireland), graupel (also called snow pellets or soft hail, a snow and freezing rain commonly occurring in the US).
15) Rain Shower / Sunny Rain shower/ Drizzle
The collection of liquid water droplets and ice crystals near the earth’s surface or air, is called fog, and sometimes called the stratus cloud-like, because condense-water vapor, of its cloud-like masses, lying close to the ground with limited visibility. There are various types of fog, and was named after weather condition and regions: radiation fog, ground fog, advection fog, sea smoke fog (also known steam fog or evaporation fog, caused by freezing fog or hoar frost), Arctic sea smoke fog, precipitation fog or frontal fog, upslope fog or hill fog, valley fog, frozen fog or ice fog, artificial fog, Garua fog (occurring in Chile and Peru) and the hail fog.
16) April Shower or Snow Shower
17) Winter Storm or Snow Storm
The sudden moderate to heavy snowfall with blowing strong gusty winds is known as snow squall. Snow squall is referred to blizzard , but is localized in space and time of snow collection and may be or not be meaningful.
A severe snowstorm with strong winds is called blizzard. The blizzard and snowstorm differs from the strength and power of winds. Blizzards can paralyze the affected regions for days, especially the region or state which snow fall is rare and unusual. The most deadliest blizzard ever recorded, leaving 4000 deaths approximately is the 1972 Iran blizzard.
18) Ice Storm
The winter storm or freezing rain, also called glaze event or silver thaw, in some parts of the United States is called the ice storm. The storm in which the freezing rain or snow, formed coat of thick ice as it touches the surface.
The Avalanche is the drastic, sudden flow of volume of snow down the mountain side or slopes triggered by snowstorm or sudden heavy rain, artificial triggers such as snowmobiles, explosives or back country skiers, overloading the snow packs. Avalanche is composed of flowing snow and differ from mudslide, rock slides or block or columned ice (serac) on a portion of glaciers, described by rapid and drastic flow in the surface (icefall).
20) Rainbow, Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis
Rainbow is a bow or arc, and an optical and meteorological phenomenon that causes lights to appear in the sky, opposite the sun in drops of rain, and causes refraction and reflection of the sun rays and produces spectral colors of red, orange, yellow, indigo and violet.
Aurora Borealis or Northern Lights
The aurora borealis (Northern lights) and aurora australis (Southern lights), is natural light display in the sky especially in the high latitude of Arctic and Antartic regions, caused by crashing of energetic changed particles with atoms in the high atmospheric altitude or thermosphere. Aurora light is classified as spreading freely or individually distinct northern lights or southern lights; and the charged particles that came from magnetosphere, solar wind and the Earth, are guided by the Earth’s magnetic field to the atmosphere.